As many of you know, moving to a new city is never easy. Everything from finding a house, adjusting to a new workplace, meeting new people and for us cyclists finding 30, 60 and 100km routes from our homes can be overwhelming.
Morning Glory Youth Development ProgramIn Conjunction with the National Cycling Center of Hamilton Proposed Program 2017
The Club welcomes your feedback, please email email@example.com with any input
To provide a pathway for youth development that supports children from ages eight to Elite and will ensure that all stages of development are addressed equally based on a long-term athlete model (LTAD). Year-round fully staffed programs will provide young athletes an educational, fun, and safe environment to develop fitness, confidence and cycling skills.
Despite the large number of cycling clubs in Ontario, there are very few with a focus on youth development. The primary reason comes down to a lack of resources.
MGCC recognized this lack of youth development and in 2014 began seeking solutions. One successful program that has come out of MGCC was a youth bursary that funded young riders now racing in the professional riders including Ben Perry, Jack Burke, and Adam Jamieson. These athletes all trained out of NCCH.
In an effort to expand the program and include youths of all ages MGCC began talking with NCCH. Together we have been collaborating to design a solid pathway for Youth/Junior cyclists in the GTA that can expand on and benefit both our current grass track programs and bursary program.
Recently, interim coach for the program, Trevor Connor, visited NCCH to see their existing youth development courses in action. What he witnessed was seven coaches and staff (several full-time) running a high energy and impressive weekly training-camp level program. It included a team of three younger coaches leading the 8-12-year-old group to a park for some skills development and friendly racing. A fully supported training ride for the 13-17-year-olds with a follow car and on-road coaching, classroom sessions for both groups to educate and entertain, and finally, a tip to the Milton track for the older athletes.
Trevor’s conclusion was that this was a very well run program reminiscent of his days at the National Center in British Columbia. But what was clear was that a program of this caliber required a structured approach backed by experience, a team of volunteers, and a full time staff.
It is remarkable what MGCC has accomplished as a club run entirely by volunteers. However, the majority of our members are riders who have extremely busy lifestyles and who do not have the time required to develop the program we mapped out with NCCH’s help. It is envisioned that within a three-year period the Youth/Junior membership of the club will exceed 100. Many of these riders will be competing proudly with the MG colors. Many will require training programs, training sessions, motor pacing, ergo sessions, etc.
We believe that our team members and volunteers will play a very important role in this program. But to guarantee growth and sustainability a professional staff is required.
Even if we can initially get the program running on a volunteer structure, frequently programs like this die when key parent/volunteer/s leave as their kids get older. The NCCH system is sustainable, and MG can learn a great deal from their system and approach.
Why Partner with NCCH?
For an effective development program that helps youths at all levels - from eight-year-olds just getting comfortable with their bikes to Elite focusing on National caliber racing - we believe absolutely that a purely volunteer-based program is not sustainable. This program must be professionally supported with a full-time staff. We believe that over our initial start-up years, NCCH fills this essential gap as well as:
Essentially NCCH will consult with the MG Board, volunteers, coaches and staff to provide their experience and systems that have made them arguably one of, if not the most successful Youth cycling development program in Canada. This will include:
What the Partnership with NCCH is Not
There has been some confusion and concern about the exact nature of this relationship and what the partnership may mean. So it is important that we clarify what this partnership is not:
The Development Pathway
There are two parts to this partnership, and they complete the proposed pathway that we will develop at MG.
The trade team has advantages, and is a very important aspect of the total pathway:
First Year: The 2017 Program
Our hope is for the program to expand over the upcoming years (a map of the full future program is provided below.) For 2017 we hope to start with a program that is manageable and encourages this development. We are planning:
Winter Indoor Training
Tracks: 8-12-year-olds and 13-17-year-olds
When: Two Days Per week for each track (a weekday and a Saturday)
Classes will focus on a mix of promoting fitness, friendly competition, games (for the younger group) and some basic race preparation for the older track. We will rely heavily on volunteers to coach the kids and to create a high-energy environment.
Spring/Summer Outdoor Training
Tracks: 8-12-year-olds and 13-17-year-olds
When: Two Days Per week for each track (a weekday and a Saturday)
Classes will meet near GEARS and take advantage of the Don Valley trail system. The 8-12-year-old track will do a variety of games, very basic skills work, and friendly competition. It is our hope to work with the existing grass-track program to the benefit of both efforts.
The 13-17-year-old track will participate in more focused group rides fully supported by program coaches. This will include team rides along the path system, periodic interval work, and skills work.
Race Participation and Coaching
The older track will participate in O-Cup races as part of the Morning Glory Cycling Team. They will be supported at the races including: coaching, team meetings, feeding, etc.
Track: 17 to Elite
MGCC will sponsor the “NCCH powered by MGCC” trade team. This sponsorship will include a continuation of the existing successful bursary program, inclusion in decisions related to races, team calendar, and rider selection.
Coaches and Volunteers
The coaches and volunteers are the heart of the program. So it is important that coaching of the MG Youth & Junior team will be by local MG Coaches with the assistance of the parents. A MG coach will also coordinate the program. Volunteer coaches, officials, and other tasks will certainly be required as the program expands and coaches and volunteers will have the opportunity to grow with the program.
All coaching staff, program directors, and programs are certified coaches and members of the professional organizations of Cycling Canada and the Ontario Cycling Centre. All coaches who interact with youth (i.e. anyone under 18) must sign a code of ethics with the National Coaching Federation, in addition to completing a vulnerable sectors background check (it’s a criminal record check plus a whole lot more). The goal is to assure parents they’re enrolling their children in clubs and sport organizations that have the best standards of care for athletes.
For this program to be successful over the long term, a key underlying assumption is that it will be comprised of the Club’s children. And as they are your children, we understand that brings with it a different level of commitment and expectations from you, the parents. While the NCCH program brings expertise and stability, ultimately we want to create a unique Morning Glory experience. While on the surface, it might appear that we are outsourcing this program, the goal is truly the opposite – to provide a framework so that members and parents can be even more involved in contributing to and creating a program of our own. Your input and help is sought after and paramount if we are to be successful.
The Club welcomes your feedback, please email firstname.lastname@example.org with any input
Arriving in Lethbridge for the start of the tour of Alberta it started to sink in, we were going to be bumping shoulders with some of the world’s best riders. Of course I had seen the start list leading up to the race but it wasn’t until I was standing next to Frank Schleck, Ryder Hesjedal, Bauke Mollema, Francisco Mancebo and others that it started to sink in; these guys have been on the podium at the tour. I was feeling good, nervous and anxious going into the first stage but had absolutely no idea what to expect.
Stage one was a circuit race but it might as well have been a 100+km crit. The pace was full gas right from the gun as there was no neutral start but after 5min I found myself jumping off the front with guys from Trek and Cannondale jumping on my wheel. We got pulled back and of course the fireworks just keep going until something sticks but it was a nice confidence booster to see that I was able to trade punches with these guys as well and wouldn’t just be sitting in as pack fill. The stage didn’t go as we had all thought as it turned out to be the crucial stage for GC as a break of around 20 made it to the line 2min up the road. Discouraged that my GC aspirations were going to be hard to maintain, my race was now about getting in the breaks and stage hunting.
Well yesterday was 30+ and sunny and today we all got hypothermia. 186km stage with a decent sized fast climb in the middle made stage 2 seem fairly straight forward until you throw in the classic tour of Alberta weather. Again the all-out fireworks show took place for the first hour until all the teams were happy the break had gotten away and we got to relax until the KOM. As soon as we started the KOM the sky’s opened up and the temperature dropped to just under 5 degrees, but seeing as how I was holding over 6w/kg to stay at the front while other riders were being popped off the back, the cold hadn’t sunk in yet. Shortly after the top of the KOM we would make a left and would ride the next 90km’s in a ripping cross wind. Knowing this is where the field was going to be ripped apart everyone was fighting to stay near the front and make the split. Sure enough only 200m after making the left turn a gap started to open up with 30 riders up the road. Knowing this was the move that was going to stick I jumped across solo, my eyes rolling back into my head trying to close only a 500m gap in the cross wind. Once the pace relaxed a bit and our heart rates dropped everyone began to freeze. Since there had been a huge split the commissaries wouldn’t let our team cars come up to us as they didn’t want other riders jumping in and trying to draft the caravan up to the break. We now had 80km’s to go in the cross winds, pouring rain, 5 degrees out and wearing only a long sleeve jersey and shorts. No one spoke as we were too cold, I thought I was going to crash going down a straight line at one point because I was shaking so much and could barely hold on to my bars and I rode the next 80km’s in the drops because my fingers wouldn’t work well enough to pull the brakes while I was on my hoods. I also barely made it to the finish because I was bonking so bad and had plenty of food in my jersey but couldn’t get to it because I had no dexterity left in my hands to get into my pockets. That was a tough day to be a bike racer.
Stage 3 was much the same as stage 2 but trade the horrid weather for some rad gravel sections. Riding 50km/h (on the flats) in deep gravel on road bikes in the bunch is absolutely insane. Everyone is right on the edge of crashing, there’s bottles flying out of cages everywhere, slamming into pot holes you’d avoid on a motocross bike and if one person crashes, no way you can steer around it let alone touch the brakes. You either throw fear and common sense out the window, hold on and pedal hard and just tell yourself it’s going to be fine or you’re dropped and if you get dropped in the gravel your tours done as you’re not coming back and you’re not making time cut. Thankfully I thought this was so much fun and loved the gravel sections. I think the reason some people love it is because you’re so focussed on not crashing and you’re getting bounced around so much that you forget how much your legs are burning. Either way that was a ton of fun.
Stage 4 was a road bike only 12km ITT. I was happy to still have good legs and managed to finish 19th, 2 seconds out of 13th. I really enjoyed this day as again I was nervous going in but managed to beat Frank Schleck by less than a seconds and Mike Woods was my minute man but by the line I had almost caught him. The highlight of this tour however was hearing my parents cheering just before the finish line as I was bleeding out of my eyes. They didn’t tell me they were coming and this was the first race they were able to make it to this year so they drove 12 hours just to see me for a few seconds as they had to leave the next morning.
Stage 5 was the hardest day, a 126km circuit race in downtown Edmonton with 2 hard climbs each lap. Like the first stage a big break went with one of our riders in it but after a few laps he was dropped out of it. The break was at 30seconds at the time and as soon as I saw our rider and a few others coming back to the bunch I jumped across on one of the climbs trying to bridge solo. I managed to close 25 out of the 30second gap but with an intermediate sprint coming up, the break picked up the pace too high for me to make the last 5 seconds. Heartbreaking to get so close but have to roll back to the bunch I managed to stay with the front group as each lap more and more riders were blown off the back.
I finished the tour 15th overall on GC which although didn’t meet my aspirations of a top 10, it was much better than out of the top 50 or a DNF that most u23 riders have finished in their tour of Alberta. I learned a lot from this race and gained plenty of confidence as the racing was actually easier than I imagined and I wasn’t in over my head. The style of racing is the biggest difference, full gas for the first 45min-1:30 then calm if you’re not in the break then flat out again for the last hour. The other major difference is that they don’t slow down as the stages go by. You’re spinning out the 53x11 on the flats on day 1 and every day after that and if you have less than a 55x11 on for the TT you won’t be in the top 30 unless it’s uphill.
These recommendations are based on an article by Basler et. al.
Before you get Road Rash
1. Get yourself a first aid kit with the following supplies:
2. Also, if you haven’t had a tetanus diphtheria booster in the last ten years, get one now before your next road rash.
After your Road Rash
your last booster!
Cycle Toronto has responded to Bill 31, Making Ontario’s Roads Safer. They included some significant information about two-abreast cycling. We greatly appreciate the work Cycle Toronto has done. You can read their full response in the attachment below.
Here are just some highlights of what is discussed in the letter:
Cycle Toronto is a diverse member-supported organization that advocates for a healthy, safe, cycling-friendly city for all. We strongly support the passage of Bill 31, which in large part aims to improve cycling safety in Ontario, In particular, Cycle Toronto would like to express our support for the following elements of the Bill:
1. Permitting flashing red lights on the rear of bicycles (Section 22 (2));
2. Higher fines for distracted driving (Section 23);
3. Providing for traffic control signals specific to bicycles and allowing cycling alongside crosswalks (e.g., for two-stage left turns) (Sections 39 & 41);
4. Requiring drivers to maintain a one-metre distance when passing a cyclist (Section 43);
5. Providing for contraflow bicycle lanes on one-way streets (Section 45);
6. Permitting bicycle riding on paved highway shoulders (Section 47); ad
7. Higher fines for “doorings” – opening a vehicle door in the path of a cyclist (Section 50).
There are, however, five areas of Bill 31 that we recommend should be amended:
1. We respectfully submit that the existing requirement for reflective tape on bicycles is physically impossible to accommodate on some road bicycles (Section 22 (2));
2. We do not support the drastic increase—from $20 to $500—in maximum fines for cyclists without lights, although we would accept a smaller increase (Section 22 (3));
3. We propose language to strengthen the new one-metre passing rule (Section 43);
4. We propose a new provision clarifying that riding two-abreast is permissible under certain conditions.
5. We request that Bill 31 address the need for mandatory side-guards on large trucks.
We have your list of prize winners from the Year End Party, the Hoe Down.
But first and most importantly, the Mariposa. Congratulations to Roger Gallibois on your fantastic new machine!
The other raffle winners are listed below. You will each be contacted individually about your prizes and how to pick them up.
We also created this awesome video of the award winners: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8S9z7xrTxt4&feature=youtu.be
Thanks again to everyone for a great night.
This Tuesday is the OCA AGM for 2014. Sasha Gollish, MGCC Board Member, also serves on the OCA Board. In the last year there has been lots of change at the OCA, the Board moved from an Operational Board to a Policy Board. Moving forward for 2014-2015 the OCA Board would like to preserve its existing members for continuity.
The future for the OCA is very exciting too. This year will see the PanAm/Para-PanAm Games and the completion of the veledrome. Smells like World Track Championships in Ontario's future!
While Sasha encourages you all to attend she knows that it is just not possible. If you wish for Sasha to vote on your behalf please fill out the attached form here or go to: http://www.ontariocycling.org/web_doc/gen_pdf/20140618-183821-Proxy%202014.pdf and download the form.
1) You must have a UCI LIcence or Citizen's Permit in order to vote - if you don't have one, don't waste your time filling out the proxy
2) If you have an opinion as to which three directors you would like to elect, then please select them, otherwise the MGCC would like you to leave them blank, as your proxy will then be voted along with the Board recommendations which the MGCC supports. Same goes for the items under "Other Business". In other words, just sign the document and fax/scan it over to the OCA to support MGCC's position.
3) PLEASE VOTE - THIS IS IMPORTANT - form must be returned to the OCA by Sunday June 22nd at 7pm!!
Please send all questions or comments to email@example.com
Here is a race report from MGCC bursary recipient Bayley Simpson. Great race Bayley...we're loving the race reports.
Grey County RR Report:
This weekend was the first really tough race of the Ontario Cup Circuit the Grey County Road Race. The original plan for the race was to be conservative, sit in until the final climb, and stay near the front. About 12km in I was on the front driving the pace up the first hill so that plan went out the window. Then about 7km later, we were going along in a head wind through a rolling section and I went off the front with two other riders and then within 2km the field brought us back. Then after a long cross wind section with a bunch of attacks we made a left turn up a steep hill that kept going steadily after and I attacked again and the field brought me back right away. We rolled down the headwind section to a 180 degree right hand turn and I was on the front and got a gap through the corner where attacked again. With a fast downhill and strong cross wind I was off the front for about 3km, then the field caught up to me and we had split the field in half. I was yelling to keep it rolling as there was a steep hill coming up and then some long flat sections but no one would work and the field came back together. We then turned into a tail wind section and it was all together until the feed zone. There was a steep hill up to the feed zone and a long false flat afterward. Up that hill an OBC rider attacked and 7 of us got away and I did manage to grab a bottle! Everyone sat up a little bit after the feed zone so I attacked since we had dropped a lot of people. I was off the front for a bit. then the OBC crew brought me back but we had managed to drop a lot of people. We then road the next 10km on rolling sections with a tail wind and two juniors rolled of the front unnoticed and got a big gap. We descended at over 70km/h for the next 8km and rolled in a crosswind and head wind to the base of scenic caves. Glasses on the helmet. bottles thrown on the side of the road, jersey unzipped, and we began the climb. Being one of the bigger guys I was a little nervous about the hill but had been in the mountains for almost a month this winter so I was feeling pretty good about my chances. With two riders up the road and one of them being my teammate I was fighting it out for the last podium spot. At the bottom both OBC riders attacked me and I hesitated because I was still unsure of how well I would be able to climb. A rider was bringing me across to them and then blew up and left me 5 meters of the back of them and I sat there for the reminder of the hill not being able to close down the gap. Once we reached the top the two of them worked together a pulled out a bit larger gap and I finished in 5th. I was very happy with this race because I do not have the build of a climber but i surprised myself and was still able to do really well on the climb with my power! In the future I now know i can climb and i will be ready to respond to those moves! Up next the Niagara Classic this coming weekend!
Toronto is a city of neighborhoods and we love our 'hoods. Its where we shop, eat, drink and ride our bikes. But every once and a while we need to branch out. To see what lies beyond yonder hill. Go west young riders of the MGCC Leaside chapter they said. There you will find a similar people with similar interests, matching tight fitting kits & pimped out bikes.
Well Apr 24th was the first full scale sojourn of the 2014 season. It was an immense turn out to say the least. Dare I say we had 100 strong? and the CNE's 1.5km loop never saw it coming. Once we dispensed with the pleasantries of the first lap all bets were off. It was a large relatively fluid moving chain of riders, the slower ones to the inside the faster ones to the outside lane. From the air it must have looked like the gears of a watch (a simple one, nothing too fancy or accurate) Eventually as pace worked its way up to the kind of speed this course is known for, east folded into west and before you knew it was all over. Then as we alway do, regardless of which side of Yonge St. you call home, we regrouped to see the sun rise and congratulate each other on the mornings efforts.
Your MGCC club has some very knowledgable minds amongst its membership. Here is a very fine example on how to understand Intervals by Trevor Connor (brother of Greg and Uncle to Cam) as published in VeloNews today......
To make sure you have enough left in the tank for the finishing sprint, it's important to understand interval training.
My friend didn’t know what to expect. He had just arrived in California, and while the weather was great, it was the company that scared him. It was his first ride with Levi Leipheimer and he prayed he’d be able to keep up. They were soon riding the hilly Northern California landscape. My friend, an accomplished mountain biker, was happy to see that he could hang with Leipheimer on the climbs, even if he was at his limit. For two hours they explored back roads while he wondered why their workout was so undirected. Eventually they stopped. With a smile, Leipheimer said, “Thanks for the ride, I have to go do my intervals now.” Just one sentence and my friend learned what being a Tour de France contender meant. The workout hadn’t been undirected. It was just the warm-up.
For those of us looking to optimize our performance, the days of purely undirected rides are behind us. As Robert Pickels, an exercise physiologist at the renowned Boulder Center for Sports Medicine, explains it, “By focusing on specific workouts, you have a much better sense of what you have done, what you need to do and how to recover.”
While a quick Google search will bring up hundreds of interval options, they too often just list times and zones. There’s a lot more to it if you want to make your intervals truly effective. So, let’s look at how to optimize your intervals.
Back to basics: Aerobic vs. anaerobicVince Lombardi was famous for starting team talks with the line, “This is a football.” The message was clear: never forget the basics. The same philosophy applies to cycling. We have two ways of producing energy: aerobic work requires oxygen and doesn’t fatigue easily; anaerobic work is fast, strong, doesn’t require oxygen and doesn’t last very long.
Almost all interval work targets one aspect of these two energy systems. Effective intervals aren’t about just going hard or riding in zone “X.” Effective intervals are about optimally stressing one of our energy pathways. As Pickels puts it, “There’s a difference between working hard and achieving a big number. If you’re working hard, but your power is going down, you’re not necessarily getting the benefit.”
Aerobic power: Be mindful of the deficitYou’re out for a ride with a few friends. You hit that steep climb and suddenly the competitive fire has you setting all new power records. Yet minutes pass before your heart rate catches up with how you feel. Our aerobic system is sluggish. It takes time for aerobic pathways to respond to an increase in work. Until it does, we rely on anaerobic metabolism for our energy. This effect is called oxygen deficit; with an increase in intensity we initially rely on anaerobic metabolism to meet the increased energy demands. According to Pickels, “People might think of the oxygen deficit but not ever call it by name, or recognize that that’s the component they are trying to increase or decrease in a given workout.”
Oxygen deficit can be critical in effectively targeting your intervals. Being in oxygen deficit generally means your aerobic system is not being fully stressed. If you are doing purely aerobic-focused work such as threshold intervals and you spend the majority of the time in deficit, your power numbers might be great, but your workout wasn’t. On the flip side, intervals targeting your anaerobic system should maximize oxygen deficit.
Anaerobic power: The big spenderThink of the fastest anaerobic animal on the planet, the cheetah, capable of running at 70 mph. Now think about what it’s doing when it’s not hunting down some slower prey — it’s laying around. We can produce a lot of anaerobic power, very fast, but it doesn’t last long and it takes time to recharge. While you have to do work to activate aerobic pathways, the best way to prepare for anaerobic work is to do nothing.
The box below gives suggestions on how to approach the different types of intervals, but in selecting which ones you should do, remember, if you want to achieve optimal performance you have to start with an understanding of yourself. As Pickels said, “The interval workout really needs to be designed based on what your goals are, what your weaknesses are, and what you need to achieve with your upcoming performances.”
Maximizing your intervalsAerobic intervals
Intervals that improve your sustainable aerobic power, such as threshold intervals, are some of the most important work a cyclist can do. These intervals are generally five to 15 minutes at your threshold heart rate/power. Also popular are VO2 max intervals, which are one to four minutes at slightly above threshold. They force normally anaerobic muscle fibers to work more aerobically. The key point: aerobic intervals are most effective when oxygen deficit is minimized. Here are tips on how to do that:
Fortunately, the aerobic system is as slow shutting down as it is starting up. As a result, prior intervals create a “priming” effect that reduces oxygen deficit in subsequent intervals, provided the recovery length is short enough. For threshold intervals, recoveries of 1-3 minutes are optimal to ensure some recovery while limiting oxygen deficit.
Get a good warm-up
Even getting the aerobic system primed at low intensities takes time. Give yourself at least 20 to 30 minutes of easy to tempo riding before starting your threshold work.
The first interval is a throwaway
While you can put out your best watts in your first threshold interval, it’s because of your heavy reliance on anaerobic energy. In terms of training, most of that interval is spent in deficit. It’s the later intervals where you produce your best training stimulus. So, don’t hammer the first interval. All you’ll do is reduce the quality of the intervals that count.
I’ve seen many riders start strong and get slower with each interval. That’s because their anaerobic reserves are depleting and they never fully utilize their aerobic system. Make sure your intervals are a consistent intensity. Target the exact same wattage or pace (on a flat road) for each. Done correctly, the first interval should feel hard, but not unbearable, and your heart rate will be a little below your threshold. By the final interval you should struggle to maintain pace.
What should you do in the recovery periods?
Keep the legs spinning between threshold intervals. This will keep the aerobic system primed. Active recovery will also aid lactate clearance.
While cycling is an aerobic sport, anaerobic power can still be the difference between a podium and middle of the pack at the end of a race. Sprint intervals are the best means of training anaerobic power.
Says Pickels: “If you’re trying to achieve those high powers, you need long recoveries. Accumulating oxygen debt is going to destroy that high power. There’s no point doing a sprint workout if you hit 1,000 watts and then 800 watts, and then 600 watts.” Recoveries should be as long as four or five minutes between sprints to recharge your anaerobic pathways.
Recovery means rest
Watch track sprinters train and you’ll see them spend lots of time sitting around. Letting your anaerobic system recharge for the next interval means doing as little as possible with your legs. Get off the bike and sit if you have to.
Keep the workout short to stay anaerobically focused
Limit your warm-up to 10-15 minutes and go home as soon as you’re done with your intervals. The entire workout should be around an hour at the most.
The secret weapon: Training the deficit
There’s 20 minutes left in the race. Someone just attacked and you have to sprint to catch on. But then a precious few seconds later another attack goes up the road. We’ve all been there. Spend too much of that last 20 minutes in deficit and you’re in trouble. Fortunately oxygen deficit, like most systems, can be trained if it’s stressed. “Training oxygen deficit is the thing that a lot of people are going for now and seeing huge increases not only in VO2 max, but in submaximal performance as well,” said Pickels.
Short efforts and short recoveries
To maximize the oxygen deficit, efforts need to be short and all-out, generally 20 to 30 seconds. However, the recoveries need to be equally short to prevent anaerobic pathways from recharging. Common intervals are six to 12 repetitions of 30-30s (thirty seconds on, thirty seconds off) and 20-10s.
Trevor Connor is a long-time cycling coach and researches both exercise physiology and nutrition at Colorado State University.
Read more at http://velonews.competitor.com/2014/03/training/training-optimizing-interval-workouts-using-oxygen-deficit_321186#TyLl2zTIFClmCAYB.99